UN non-action to combat terrorism
In the wake of 9/11, with great fanfare, the UN Security Council took action to become a leader in "the war against terrorism." It adopted Resolution 1373 (2001)
on September 28, 2001. The resolution created the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC)
which was mandated to become the lead UN agent. The Committee is composed of the members of the Security Council, who take off one hat and don another when meetings are convened. Subsequent resolutions have given the Committee and an Executive Directorate greater powers and increased resources.
Since September 28, 2001 the CTC has never named a single terrorist, terrorist organization or state sponsor of terrorism.
On the contrary, though Syria was (and still is) one of three state sponsors of terrorism designated by the U.S. State Department in its annual Country Reports on Terrorism
, it was a member of the CTC for two years, from January 2002 to December 2003.
The three state sponsors of terrorism Iran, Sudan and Syria
have written reports to the CTC about their compliance with Security Council Resolution 1373. In the absence of any UN definition of terrorism, all of these states have readily proclaimed that they are engaged in a vigorous campaign to combat terrorism.
From 2001-2006 the CTC elicited over 700 reports from UN member states on their counter-terrorism activities. States, however, complained about the reporting burden. The questions and comments of the CTC's hired experts – which were made on the state reports – were kept confidential
In October 2006, the CTC introduced a procedure called the "Preliminary Implementation Assessments". The CTC, with input from the state concerned, now drafts its own reports on the implementation of counter-terrorism measures on all UN members and sends them to each state for comment. Since November 2008, the Committee approved
the initial assessments of all 193 Member States and 121 States have entered "the second stocktaking cycle."
None of the Preliminary Implementation Assessments (PIA's) have been made public
In 2013, the PIA system was replaced
with a program called a "DIS" or detailed implementation survey. The DIS is a series of yes/no questions, the idea being that it allows less open-ended and vague responses and a clearer assessment of those responses. The UN describes the DIS this way: "The DIS consists of a set of questions concerning counter-terrorism measures that States should put in place for the effective implementation of resolutions 1373 (2001) and 1624 (2005)...Some questions are aimed specifically at assessing Member States' implementation of the measures contemplated by the two resolutions; others seek to obtain clarification of States' overall counter-terrorism capacities and strategies."
is at pains to describe the DIS as a process that avoids any public identification of specific terrorist threats: "Shortfalls identified in the DIS are not intended to imply failure by a State to comply with its obligations."
The completed Detailed Implementation Surveys (DIS) will not be made public.
The UN also says
that the DIS will be a working document of the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate - that is, not a public document - and that it will contain no judgments. It "will be circulated for information only" and "is shared only with the State concerned."
Furthermore, every six months, the Committee will be given "a list of late or non-reporting Member States" - but that list will not be made public
The list of states failing to answer the Detailed Implementation Surveys (DIS) will not be made public.
The CTC has also introduced an "Overview of Implementation Assessment (OIA)." Data collected via the DIS process will be used merely to identify and analyze "general trends regarding the implementation of resolutions 1373 (2001) and 1624 (2005)." The OIA will not be put on the UN website, but will be available to other Member States
"upon request." However, even that step was only taken after the UN spelled out
to CTC members: "I can assure you that the data collected will not be used in any way to name and shame Member States (i.e. in other words this is not a report card)."
The Overview of Implementation Assessment (OIA's) of general trends will only be available to other Member States upon request but will "not be a report card" or "name and shame."
The CTC has been empowered to conduct country visits -- with the consent of the state concerned. The countries selected for a visit have to first be approved by the CTC (Security Council). As of December 15, 2015
, the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) has conducted some 106 country visits since 2005 – and claims to transparency notwithstanding – has never made the reports of those visits public either. It is publicly known that the CTED has visited the following 65 countries (5 of the countries listed below were visited a second time):
2005: Morocco, Kenya, Albania, Algeria, Thailand
2006: Tanzania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Jordan, Malaysia, Philippines, India, Pakistan, Mali, Nigeria, Kuwait
2007: Indonesia, Turkey, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Georgia, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2008: Niger, Saudi Arabia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic
2009: Kenya (return visit), Uganda, United Kingdom, Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Burkina Faso, Mali (return visit), Senegal, Panama, the Republic of Korea, Singapore and Bangladesh (return visit)
2010: Timor Leste, Brunei
Darussalam, Tunisia, Greece, Yemen and Bolivia
2012: Argentina, Canada, Djibouti, Finland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden and Uruguay
2013: Serbia, Morocco (return visit), Guyana, Suriname, Belarus, Ukraine
2014: Malta, Sri Lanka
2015: Cameroon, Uzbekistan, Oman, Italy, Madagascar, Iraq, Nigeria (return visit)
It is also known from the total number of 106 reported visits (in the December 15, 2015 report to the Security Council
) that the CTC has visited another 41 countries. The identity of the other 41 states visited is not publicly available.
No reports on any visits have been made available to the public.
And the central state sponsors of terrorism are not known
to have been visited.
The Security Council produces two lists of all individuals and entities subject to sanctions imposed by the Council for terrorism-related activities: one entitled the "ISIL (Da'esh) and Al-Qaida Sanctions List"
(that also includes Boko Haram and the Taliban outside Afghanistan), and one entitled "1988 (2011) Sanctions List,"
also known as the Afghanistan/Taliban sanctions list for Taliban inside Afghanistan. These lists can be compared to the State Department's list of foreign terrorist organizations
. Omitted from the UN list, for instance, are the terrorists whose preferred targets are Jews in Israel: Palestine Liberation Front (PLF), Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLF), Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade (AAMB), Hamas, and Hizbollah.
See also: No UN definition of terrorism
State Reports - Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1373 (2001)